Declarative Knowledge

Stop Worrying about Multiple-Choice":" Fact Knowledge Does Not Change with Response Format

This paper discusses the differences between multiple-choice and open-ended formats for measuring crystallized intelligence or declarative fact knowledge, respectively. It has been suggested that multiple-choice formats only require recognizing the correct response, whereas open-ended formats require cognitive processes such as searching, retrieving, and actively deciding on a response from long-term memory. Two online studies were conducted to test these assumptions, and the results showed that item difficulty increases in the open-ended methods, but the method of inquiry does not affect what is measured with different response formats. This suggests that crystallized intelligence does not change as a function of the response format.

The Nomological Net of Knowledge, Self-Reported Knowledge, and Overclaiming in Children

This research aims to close the gap in knowledge of self-reported knowledge and overclaiming in children. A questionnaire was developed to measure this in a sample of 897 third grade children. Three perspectives were discussed":" overclaiming as a result of deliberate self-enhancement, a proxy for declarative knowledge, and an indicator of creative engagement. The results of the study showed that individual differences in self-reported knowledge were strongly inflated by overclaiming, and only weakly related to declarative knowledge, similar to findings in adult samples.

Testing Competing Claims About Overclaiming

We discuss four different perspectives on the phenomenon of overclaiming that have been proposed in the research literature; Overclaiming as a result of a) self-enhancement tendencies, b) as a cognitive bias (e.g., hindsight bias, memory bias), c) as proxy for cognitive abilities, and d) as sign of creative engagement. Moreover, we discuss two different scoring methods for an OCQ (signal detection theory vs. familiarity ratings).